Adversaries may modify file or directory permissions/attributes to evade access control lists (ACLs) and access protected files. File and directory permissions are commonly managed by ACLs configured by the file or directory owner, or users with the appropriate permissions. File and directory ACL implementations vary by platform, but generally explicitly designate which users or groups can perform which actions (read, write, execute, etc.).
Modifications may include changing specific access rights, which may require ownership of a file or directory and/or elevated permissions depending on the file or directory's existing permissions. This may enable malicious activity such as modifying, replacing, or deleting specific files or directories. Specific file and directory modifications may be required a required step for many techniques, such as establishing Persistence via Accessibility Features, Boot or Logon initialization Scripts, .bash_profile and .bashrc, or tainting/hijacking other instrumental binary/configuration files vie Hijack Execution Flow.